Urals Federal District
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area
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Federal district: Urals Federal District.
Main cities: Noyabrsk and Novy Urengoy.
Land and Resources: The Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area is an entire country in the center of Russia`s Far North. It is located on the West Siberian Plain, the largest such plain in the world. A small part of its territory is situated on the eastern slopes of the Polar Urals (the city of Payer). It has an area of more than 750 000 km2, or 1.5 times the size of France. More than 50% of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area lies north of the Arctic Circle. The area borders on the Komi Republic in the west, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area in the south, and the Taimyr Autonomous Area in the east. Its northern boundary is on the Arctic Ocean and is part of the national boundary of the Russian Federation. Permafrost, closeness to the cold Kara Sea, coastal inlets penetrating far inland, and an abundance of bogs, lakes, and rivers all influence the climate. The main rivers are the Ob, Taz, Pur, and Nadym. There are a large number of bogs and more than 5000 lakes, most of them small (up to a few hundred meters in diameter), although there are some large lakes 10-20 km in diameter; the largest are Yarato, Neito, and Yambuto. The large lakes are ice-free only in midsummer and are already frozen again by mid- to late October.
Climate: The autonomous area is situated for the most part in three climatic zones: the Arctic and subarctic zones and the northern taiga belt of the West Siberian Plain. The climate is severely continental, with average January temperatures of -22 °С to -26 °С and average July temperatures of +4°С to +14°С. There are frequent magnetic storms, which are often accompanied by the Northern Lights in winter. Polar days and nights are typical of the region.
Transportation: Expansion of the transportation network is a priority for regional development. At present, it is difficult to provide transportation services to the population. Maritime and river shipping have historically been very important for the region. The main navigable rivers are the Ob, Nadym, Pur, and Taz. There are large ports in Salekhard, Nadym, Urengoi, and Tazovskoe. However, the rivers are navigable only during the short summer period, generally no more than 3-4 months and only 2 months in the north. The northern seaport is little used at present. The area has 4044.3 km of roads, most of which (3247.3 km) are company roads; the remaining 797 km are general-purpose roads. In addition, there are more than 3500 km of winter roads. Roadbuilding is going on at a rapid rate. Air transport is especially important in the area. Aviation is of fundamental importance for transporting passengers, mail, priority freight, and medical services in the huge, virtually undeveloped territory with its isolated communities. Two airlines, Yamal and Tyumen Airlines, operate in the area. Rail transport is the only available form of transportation for nearly a third of the area`s residents. At present, there are several railway stations and two unconnected rail lines in the area.
The capital is the city of Salekhard (formerly known as Obdorsk), which celebrated its 400th anniversary in 1995. Cossacks founded the city in 1595. Archeologists have proven that tribes with a high level of material culture inhabited the banks of the Lower Ob River. The long and fascinating history of this territory is reflected in its distinctive culture. Salekhard is believed to be the only town in the world that is located right on the Polar circle. The area was populated twice: in 6-7th centuries A.D. and 12-14th centuries A.D., which is proved by an archaeological monument Zelenaya Gorka situated within the city.
Modern-day Yamal is a cultural center for Northern peoples.
The first Obdorsk church was built in 1602 `with the maintenance of the approved in princedom by tsar Boris Godunov newly proselytized prince of Obdorsk Vasily` in the honor of his saint, Vasily, the archbishop of Caesarea Cappadocia, known in Christian history by the name of Vasily the Great.
In January 1994 there opened a museum in a former apartment of Leonid Laptsuy. The museum keeps objects related to life and creative work of the Nenets poet, a member of Writers Guild, Leonid Vasilyevich Laptsuy.
The Arctic Circle divides the city into two parts. This uniqueness of the city geographical position is a business card of Yamal capital. Salekhard is the only city in the world situated on the polar circle.
In 2002 a recreational center for the young was built, which came to be one of the major places attracting young inhabitants of Salekhard.
Since the beginning of the nineteenth century the key point of interest in Obdorsk has been the Winter Fair. Today museum-exhibition complex, launched in 2001, carries on traditions of the northern city in the sphere of trade. Fairs in Yamal capital attract representatives of large Russian and foreign companies, mutually profitable goods and equipment delivery contracts and agreements are signed.
In the vicinity of Salekhard there are several monuments, emphasizing the unique geographical situation of the city, located on the polar circle. «66 - I parallel» and the mammoth monument, installed at the crossing near Labytnangi became symbols of the city.
Architectural complex «Obdorsky fortress» in Salekhard .Obdorsk Ostrog (Obdorsk Fortress, the modern city of Salekhard) - one of the first Russian settlements on the territory of Siberia.
Aviation Museum in Salekhard
The museum-apartment Leonid Laptsuy in Salekhard
Yamalo-Nenets Museum and Exhibition Complex named I.S.Shemanovsky in Salekhard
Ice sculpture in Salekhard
The mosque in Salekhard
The bridge «Torch» in Salekhard
Monument of romance seventies in Salekhard
Monument of North deer in Salekhard
Ust-Poluyskoe sanctuary in Salekhard
The temple in the name of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in Salekhard
The «Road dead» in Western Siberia - unfinished construction of the railway Salekhard-Igarka built by prisoners in 1940-1950.
Sculpture mammoth in Salekhard
Stella «66 parallel» in Salekhard
Encarta World Atlas
http://www.yamal.ru/ - Official Site of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area
www.salekhard.org - Official site of Salekhard municipality