Central Federal District
Time: Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). local time in Moscow and St Petersburg is GMT +3 (GMT +4 in summer).
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Federal district: Central Federal District.
Main cities: Obninsk, Lyudinovo, Kirov, and Maloyaroslavets.
Land and Resources: Kaluga Region is a relatively small region (29 900 km2) situated on the East European Plain of central Russia between Moscow, Tula, Bryansk, Smolensk, and Orlov regions. The plain gradually gives way to the Smolensk Uplands in the western and northwestern parts of the region and the Central Russian Uplands in the eastern part. Scenic plains with numerous rivers and lakes bordered with spruce, pine, oak, and birch groves form the landscape of Kaluga Region. Kaluga Region`s water supply consists mainly of the Oka and Desna rivers, their tributaries, and 2043 other rivers and streams with a total length of 11 700 km. There are also 17 reservoirs.
Climate: Kaluga Region has a mild continental climate with an average January temperature of -5.2°C and an average July temperature of +18.2 °C.
Transportation: Kaluga is a port on the Oka River and a manufacturing center served by several railroad lines. Public transport in Kaluga consists of buses and trolleybuses.
Kaluga is known for its most famous resident, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a rocket science pioneer who worked here as a school teacher. There is a museum in Kaluga dedicated to his theoretical achievements and their practical implementations for modern space research, hence the motto on the city`s coat of arms: "The Cradle of Space Exploration".
There are 593 cultural monuments in the region, 470 of them of federal significance. Buildings preserved from past eras lend their unique and distinctive color to the cities and towns of Kaluga Region. The two-story stone Korobov mansion, the Zolotarev town estate built in the style of architect M.F. Kazakov, and the Empire-style Bilibin mansion are examples of late 17th century civil architecture. Skilled craftsmen and seamstresses had lived in Kaluga Region since early times. Their knowledge and mastery of their crafts were expressed in embroidery, pottery, metal smithing and founding, lacemaking, and basketry.
The natural environment of Kaluga Region is scenic and beautiful. Deep rivers, numerous streams, abundant forests and wildlife help preserve the region`s flora and fauna. Many protected areas have been established, and nearly every district has its own natural sites. The largest of these protected areas are Kaluzhskie Zaseki State Nature Preserve in Ulyanovsky District and Ugra National Park.
Two theaters and two studios operate in Kaluga Region. The best known of these is the Kaluga State Drama Theater opened in 1777. In addition to the theaters, there are two experimental studios: the TYuZ municipal experimental youth theater studio and the DEMI experimental theater studio in Obninsk.
The region also has 22 museums, the largest of which are the Kaluga Regional Art Museum and the Kaluga Regional Museum of Local Lore. The museum currently has more than 7000 exhibits of sculpture, drawings, and works by Russian and foreign artisans and craftsmen. The museum of local lore was founded in 1897 by members of the Scientific Archival Committee. It holds exhibits of 18th- to early 20th-century porcelain and faience collections, antique clocks, and butterfly and beetle specimens from around the world from the collection of scientist and explorer M.M. Mesterhazy. The other 20 museums are branches of these two large museums.
The Kaluga Souvenir (Kaluzhsky Suvenir) dance ensemble is known far beyond Russia. It has performed in Romania, China, Germany, Canada, Poland, and Bulgaria.
Encarta World Atlas
http://www.admobl.kaluga.ru/ - Official Site of the Administration of Kaluga Region