Southern Federal District
Time: Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD).
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Federal district: Southern Federal District.
Main cities: Novorossiysk, Armavir, Tikhoretsk, Eisk, Gelendzhik, Sochi, Kislovodsk, Matsesta and Kropotkin.
Land and Resources: Krasnodar Territory is located in the western part of the Greater Caucasus and on the Kuban-Azov (Kuban) Plain. It is the southernmost Russian region. It has an area of 76 000 km2. The Republic of Adygea is also part of Krasnodar Territory. Krasnodar Territory is one of the most attractive parts of Russia, with its boundless steppes and high forest-covered mountains. Russia`s two southernmost seas wash the foot of the Caucasus Mountains. The mountains are the source of the many rivers that carve their paths through deep gorges and canyons. The territory borders on Rostov Region in the north and northeast, Stavropol Territory in the east, and Abkhazia in the south. The southern and western boundaries follow the coasts of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Krasnodar has few large lakes, but Khanskoe, Chemburskoe, and Ubezhenskoe lakes with their medicinal muds and the Primorsko-Akhtarsk mud pools are worth mentioning. The mineral mud on the Taman Peninsula contains salt, iodine, and bromine.
Climate: The climate varies from temperate continental to subtropical. Average January temperatures range from -8 °C in the mountains (above 2000 m) and -4 °C on the plains to +5 °C on the seacoast; average July temperatures vary from +13 °C in the mountains to +23 °C on the plains and coast.
Transportation: The main airline is Kuban Airlines (at Krasnodar Pashkovsky Airport). Public transportation within Krasnodar consists of city buses, trolleybuses, trams, and marshrutkas.
The territory of Krasnodar Territory is a nature conservation zone distinguished by diverse plant and animal life. The Caucasus State Biosphere Reserve is located here. This natural research complex is part of the international national park system. Mineral springs are of great interest and form the basis of health resorts in Goryachy Klyuch (the name means "hot spring"), Khadyzhensk, and Maikop and the Krasnodar Hydropathic Center. The mineral waters of Goryachy Klyuch and Maikop have a well-deserved reputation as table waters. The territory`s hotel business is expanding. A favorable climate, warm seas, mineral and mud springs, and scenic mountain and coastal landscapes have combined to make Krasnodar Territory one of the most important tourist regions of Russia and the CIS.
Two groups of resorts – Mineral Water (Mineralovodskaya) and Black Sea Coast (Prichernomorskaya) – are particularly outstanding. The Essentuki springs, the Narzans of Kislovodsk, and the hydrosulfuric springs of Matsesta are world-renowned.
Krasnodar Territory is a striking combination of historical monuments, modern housing complexes, and huge industrial facilities, as well as a center of culture, education and scientific research.
"Heaven on earth" is one way to characterize this amazing corner of Russia. The territory needs no advertising. The Black Sea is above all a healthy place for people. Millions of people have come to the Black Sea coast not only to see the snow-capped peaks of the Caucasus, waterfalls, beautiful mountain lakes, and colorful alpine meadows, but also to improve their health and "recharge". The endless beaches are equipped with solariums, shower facilities, and stations for renting boats, water skis, and bicycles. The swimming season at Kuban resorts lasts from mid-May to the end of October, and there are 240 sunny days a year on average. The moist temperate climate with mild winters and very warm summers makes it possible for tourists to visit this beautiful territory in any season. Numerous recreation and health centers and children`s health camps successfully blend into a single whole with the landscape. They are surrounded by magnolias, palms, cedars, cypress, pines, plane trees, laurels, hydrangeas, roses, and wisteria.
Krasnodar was founded on January 12, 1794 as Yekaterinodar. The original name meant "Catherine`s Gift". The origin of the city starts with a fortress built by Cossacks in order to defend imperial borders and claim Russian ownership over Circassia, which was contested by Ottoman Turkey.
Shukhovs Hyperboloid Tower near Krasnodars Circus - The unique architectural steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Great Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1928—is located near Krasnodars Circus.
The major tourist attractions include St. Catherine`s Cathedral, the State Arts Museum, a park and theatre named after Maxim Gorky, the beautiful concert hall of the Krasnodar Philharmonic Society, which is considered to have some of the best acoustics in southern Russia, State Cossack Choir and the Krasnodar circus.
Anapa. Climatic and balneal resort famous for its sanatoria and health resort and vineyards.
Gelendzhik. One of the popular resorts on the Black Sea famous for its beaches, embankment and Carnival.
Hero-city Novorossiysk. Beautiful lake Abrau with a settlement Abrau-Dyurso, sanatoria, parks, museum-reserve.
Sochi. It`s the largest sanatorium-and-spa complex in Russia, popular climatic and balneal resort. Mineral springs of Matsesta, Agura, Hosta. Provides various kinds of rest: beaches, whitewater rafting, paragliding, hiking, climbing, jeeping, horse-riding, diving, etc. Resort Krasnaya Polyana – Russian Switzerland.
Ethnographic museum in Lazarevskoye
Literature-memorial museum of Ostrovsky
Mountain Akhun with its Tower
Yew-box grove – the only accessible part of the Caucasus state biosphere reserve.
Encarta World Atlas
http://admkrai.kuban.ru/ - Official site of the Administration of Krasnodar Territory