Central Federal District
Time: Moscow Time Zone.
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Federal district: Central Federal District.
Capital: Moscow is the capital and the largest city of Russia, and the largest city in Europe, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world. Moscow is the country`s political, economic, religious, financial, educational and transportation centre.
The entire city of Moscow is divided into ten administrative okrugs and 123 districts. Nine of the ten administrative districts, except the City of Zelenograd, are located within City of Moscow main boundaries.
Land and Resources: It is located on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District, in the European part of Russia. Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, which flows for just over 500 km through the East European Plain in central Russia. 49 bridges span the river and its canals within the city`s limits.
Climate: Moscow has a hemiboreal climate with warm, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters. Typical high temperatures in the warm months of June, July and August are around 22 °C (72 °F); in the winter, temperatures normally drop to approximately -10 °C (13 °F). Monthly rainfall totals vary minimally throughout the year, although the precipitation levels tend to be higher during the summer than during the winter. Due to the significant variation in temperature between the winter and summer months as well as the limited fluctuation in precipitation levels during the summer, Moscow is considered to be within a continental climate zone.
Transportation: There are five primary commercial airports serving Moscow: Sheremetyevo International Airport, Domodedovo International Airport, Bykovo Airport, Ostafievo International Airport and Vnukovo International Airport. There are also several smaller airports near Moscow, such as Airport Myachkovo, intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters.
Moscow employs several train stations to serve the city. All of Moscow`s nine rail terminals (or vokzals) – Belorussky Rail Terminal, Kazanskiy Rail Terminal, Kiyevsky Rail Terminal, Leningradsky Rail Terminal, Paveletsky Rail Terminal, Rizhsky Rail Terminal, Savyolovsky Rail Terminal, and Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal - are located close to the city centre, but they each handle trains from different parts of Europe and Asia.
Moscow also has two passenger terminals, (South River Terminal and North River Terminal or Rechnoy vokzal), on the river and regular ship routes and cruises along Moskva and Oka rivers, which are used mostly for entertainment.
Local transport includes the Moscow Metro, a metro system famous for its art, murals, mosaics, and ornate chandeliers. Today, the Moscow Metro contains twelve lines, mostly underground with a total of 176 stations. The Metro is one of the deepest subway systems in the world. The Moscow Metro is one of world`s busiest metro systems, serving more than nine million passengers daily. There is also a monorail line, operated by the same company.
Moscow`s road system is centered roughly around the Kremlin at the heart of the city. From there, roads generally radiate outwards to intersect with a sequence of circular roads (“rings”).
Moscow is the site of the Moscow Kremlin, which serves as the ceremonial residence of the President of Russia.
Moscow has always been a popular destination for tourists. Some of the better known attractions include the city`s UNESCO World Heritage Site, Moscow Kremlin and Red Square, which was built between the 14th and 17th centuries. Kolomenskoye is another popular attraction with its UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Church of the Ascension, which dates from 1532.
Other popular attractions include the Moscow Zoo, home to nearly a thousands species and more than 6,500 specimens.
Moscow`s architecture is world-renowned. Moscow is also well known as the site of Saint Basil`s Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes, as well as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Seven Sisters. The Patriarch of Moscow, whose residence is the Danilov Monastery, serves as the head of the Orthodox Church. Moscow also hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics. For a long time, the view of the city was dominated by numerous Orthodox churches.
The Ostankino Tower was the tallest free-standing land structure in the world and today remains the world`s third-tallest after the Burj Dubai in Dubai and the CN Tower in Toronto.
The Old Arbat, a popular tourist street that was once the heart of a bohemian area, preserves most of its buildings from prior to the twentieth century. Many buildings found off the main streets of the inner city (behind the Stalinist façades of Tverskaya Street, for example) are also examples of the bourgeois decadence in Tsarist times. Ostankino, Kuskovo, Uzkoye and other large estates just outside Moscow originally belong to nobles from the Tsarist era, and some convents and monasteries, both inside and outside the city, are open to Muscovites and tourists.
There are many "house-museums" of famous Russian writers, composers, and artists in the city.
Moscow`s museums, galleries and collections are some of the largest, most well-known and most important in the world.
One of the most notable art museums in Moscow is the Tretyakov Gallery, which was founded by Pavel Tretyakov, a wealthy patron of the arts who donated a large private collection to the city. The Tretyakov Gallery is split into two buildings. The Old Tretyakov gallery houses the works of the classic Russian tradition. The works of famous pre-Revolutionary painters, such as Ilya Repin, as well as the works of early Russian icon painters can be found in the Old Tretyakov Gallery. Visitors can even see rare originals by early-fifteenth century iconographer Andrei Rublev. The New Tretyakov gallery mainly contains the works of Soviet artists, as well as of a few contemporary artists, but there is some overlap with the Old Tretyakov Gallery for early twentieth century art. Another art museum in the city of Moscow is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, which was founded by, among others, Marina Tsvetaeva`s father. The halls of the Pushkin Museum are a cross-section of world civilizations, with many plaster casts of ancient sculptures. However, it also hosts famous paintings from every major Western era of art; works by Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso are all sampled there.
The State Historical Museum of Russia is a museum of Russian history wedged between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. Its exhibitions range from relics of the prehistoric tribes inhabiting present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The Polytechnical Museum is the largest technical museum in Russia, offering a wide array of historical inventions and technological achievements, including humanoid automata of the 18th century and the first Soviet computers. The Borodino Panorama museum located on Kutuzov Avenue provides an opportunity for visitors to experience being on a battlefield with a 360° diorama. There is also a military history museum not to be missed, it includes statues, military hardware, along with powerful tales of that time.
Moscow is also the heart of Russian performing arts, including ballet and film. There are ninety-three theatres, 132 cinemas and twenty-four concert-halls in Moscow. Among Moscow`s many theatres and ballet studios is the Bolshoi Theatre and the Malyi Theatre as well as Vakhtangov Theatre and Moscow Art Theatre. The repertories in a typical Moscow season are exhaustive and modern interpretations of classic works, whether operatic or theatrical, are quite common. State Central Concert Hall Rossia, famous for ballet and estrade performances, is the place of frequent concerts of pop-stars.
Novodevichy Convent is just one of many medieval monuments found throughout the city.
There are 96 parks and 18 gardens in Moscow, Including 4 botanical gardens. There are also 450 square kilometers (174 sq mi) of green zones besides 100 square kilometers (39 sq mi) of forests. Moscow is a very green city if compared to other cities of comparable size in Western Europe and America.
Monument to Jury Dolgoruky
Cathedral of Christ the Savior
Moscow state university
Panorama of the Moscow Kremlin
Encarta World Atlas