Volga Federal District
Nizhny Novgorod region
Time: Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD).
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Federal district: Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District.
Capital: Nizhny Novgorod.
Main cities: Arzamas, Sarov, Lyskovo, Gorodets and Balakhna.
Land and Resources: The area is crossed by the Volga River. Nizhny Novgorod Oblast borders Kostroma Oblast (N), Kirov Oblast (NE), Mari El Republic (E), Chuvash Republic (E), Republic of Mordovia (S), Ryazan Oblast (SW), Vladimir Oblast (W), and Ivanovo Oblast (NW).
Climate: The climate in the region is continental, and it is similar to the climate in Moscow, although colder in winter, which lasts from late November until late March with a permanent snow cover.
Transportation: Gorkovskaya Railroad is headquartered in Nizhny Novgorod. Overnight trains provide access to Nizhny Novgorod from Moscow. Nizhny Novgorod Strigino Airport has direct flights to major Russian cities, as well as to Frankfurt (three flights a week by Lufthansa). Nizhny Novgorod is an important center of Volga cargo and passenger shipping. In the summer, cruise vessels operate between Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Astrakhan. The city is served by Russian highway M-7 (MoscowЦNizhny NovgorodЦKazanЦUfa), and is a hub of the regional highway network. Public transport within the city is provided by a small subway system (Nizhny Novgorod Metro), tramways, marshrutkas or minibuses, buses and trolleybuses.
With a population of 1.3 million, Nizhny Novgorod is the largest city of the oblast and the fourth largest city of the Russian Federation, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Novosibirsk. In the town of Sarov, there is the largest and holiest convent in Russia. Makaryev Monastery opposite the town of Lyskovo used to be location of the largest fair in Eastern Europe. Other historic towns include Gorodets and Balakhna, located on the Volga to the north from Nizhny Novgorod.
Nizhny Novgorod, colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the economic and cultural center of the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and also Volga Federal District.
From 1932 to 1990 the city was known as Gorky after the writer Maxim Gorky who was born there. The city was founded in 1221 at the confluence of two most important rivers of his principality, the Volga and the Oka. Its name literally means Lower Newtown, to distinguish it from the older Novgorod.
There are more than six hundred unique historic, architectural, and cultural monuments in the city; that gave grounds to UNESCO to include Nizhny Novgorod in the list of 100 cities of the world which are of great historical and cultural value.
There are eight theatres, five concert halls, eight museums (sixteen including branches), and seven parks.
Much of the city downtown is built in the Russian Revival and Stalin Empire styles. The dominating feature of the city skyline is the grand Kremlin (1500-11), with its red-brick towers. After Bolshevik devastation, the only ancient edifice left within the kremlin walls is the tent-like Archangel Cathedral (1624-31), first built in stone in the 13th century.
Other notable landmarks are the two great medieval abbeys. The Pechersky Ascension Monastery features the austere five-domed cathedral (1632) and two rare churches surmounted by tent roofs, dating from the 1640s. The Annunciation monastery, likewise surrounded by strong walls, has another five-domed cathedral (1649) and the Assumption church (1678). The only private house preserved from that epoch formerly belonged to the merchant Pushnikov.
There can be little doubt that the most original and delightful churches in the city were built by the Stroganovs in the nascent Baroque style. Of these, the Virgin`s Nativity Church (1719) graces one of the central streets, whereas the Church of Our Lady of Smolensk (1694-97) survives in the former village of Gordeevka (now, part of the city`s Kanavinsky District), where the Stroganov palace once stood.
Other notable churches include:
the Saviour Cathedral, also known as the Old Fair Cathedral, a huge domed edifice built at the site of the great fair to an Empire style design by Agustín de Betancourt and Auguste de Montferrand in 1822;
the so-called New Fair Cathedral, designed in the Russian Revival style and constructed between 1856 and 1880 at the confluence of the Oka and the Volga;
the recently reconstructed church of the Nativity of John the Precursor (1676-83), standing just below the Kremlin walls; it was used during the Soviet period as an apartment house;
the parish churches of the Holy Wives (1649) and of Saint Elijah (1656);
the Assumption Church on St Elijah`s Hill (1672), with five green-tiled domes arranged unorthodoxly on the lofty cross-shaped barrel roof;
the shrine of the Old Believers at the Bugrovskoe cemetery, erected in the 1910s to a critically acclaimed design by Vladimir Pokrovsky;
the wooden chapel of the Intercession (1660), transported to Nizhny Novgorod from a rural area.
The town of Semyonov, to the north of Nizhny Novgorod, is known as a craft center for Khokhloma wood painting. Another suburb, Balakhna, is noted for its medieval architecture.
A singular monument of industrial architecture is a 128-metre-high open-work hyperboloid tower built on the bank of the Oka near Dzerzhinsk as part of a powerline river crossing by the eminent engineer and scientist Vladimir Shukhov in 1929.
Nizhny Novgorod has a great and extraordinary art gallery with more than 12,000 exhibits, an enormous collection of works by Russian artists such as Viktor Vasnetsov, Karl Briullov, Ivan Shishkin, Ivan Kramskoi, Ilya Yefimovich Repin, Isaak Iljitsch Lewitan, Vasily Surikov, Ivan Aivazovsky, there are also greater collections of works by Boris Kustodiev and Nicholas Roerich, not only Russian art is part of the exhibition it include also a vast accumulation of Western European art like works by David Teniers the Younger, Bernardo Bellotto, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Pieter de Grebber, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, and lot more. Finally what makes this gallery extremely important is the amazing collection Russian avant-garde with works by Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov and so on. There is also collection of East Asian art.
International Sakharov arts festival, All-Russian Pushkin opera and ballet festival УBoldino AutumnФ, International festival of charitable program УNew NamesФ, International festival of ensembles playing age-old music УHigh RenaissanceФ, Russian festival of theatrical skits УMerry GoatФ, Drama festival УGolden MaskФ and a great number of exhibitions and contests for children are traditionally held in the city and give rise to deep resonance in the sphere of professional art.
Museums play a great role in preservation of historic and cultural heritage of the city. Nizhny Novgorod state historical and architectural reserve-museum was established in 1958. There are 277 thousands of units of issue in its basic reserves. Annually 90 thousand people visit this museum. As for municipal museums - Gorky museum, Dobroljubov literary and memorial museum, Sakharov museum - their visitors are 300 thousand people in number. During the last year 4800 excursions and 610 actions (exhibitions, presentations, meetings) were held in these museums.
The Historical and Architectural Museum
The Kremlin Wall
Nizhny Novgorod Ostrog (Prison)
The Ethnographical Museum of Volga-region Ц a museum of wooden architecture in the open air
Maxim Gorky State Museum
The museum УKashirin houseФ Ц a piece of middle-class` life
The Literary Museum Ц exhibitions on the history of the intelligentsia, musical and poetical evenings
The Museum of History of УGAZФ Ц the exhibition of all the products of the plant
The Museum of History of N.Novgorod Railway, the Museum of locomotives
The Museum of Photography by M.P.Dmitriyev Ц a unique museum with a collection of 19-20 centuries` photos
The Literary Memorial Museum after N.A.Dobrolyubov Ц an exhibition of the priest`s life. Pictire gallery "Russian age"
Museum of History of Art CraftsЦ with a shop of art
A.Sakharov Museum Ц the exposition is devoted to the history of rights protectors movement
The Art MuseumЦ with valuable paintings by Russian and West-European artists
The Exhibition Center Ц changing expositions of paintings, drawings, applied art
Private galleries "Yurkovka", "Yemelya`s Gallery", "2/2", wood sculpture museum "Green Twig" were opened in Nizhny Novgorod.
Saviour`s Church, Balakhna
Shukhov towers built in Nizhny Novgorod suburbs near Dzerzhinsk in 1927Ц1929. The unique architectural constructionЧthe 128 m steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Great Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1929Чis located near the town of Dzerzhinsk on the left bank of the Oka River.
Church of the Nativity of Our Lady, built by the Stroganovs
Pechersky Ascension Monastery
New Fair Cathedral (Aleksandr Nevsky Cathedral)
Saviour (Old Fair) Cathedral
Planetarium and Circus
Encarta World Atlas