Volga Federal District
Time: Yekaterinburg Time Zone (YEKT/YEKST). UTC offset is +0500 (YEKT)/+0600 (YEKST).
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Federal district: Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District.
Main cities: Alexandrovsk, Berezniki, Chaykovsky, Lysva, Solikamsk.
Land and Resources: Before the merger with Komi-Permyak Okrug, neighboring oblasts and republics were (from north clockwise) Komi Republic, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Republic of Bashkortostan, Udmurt Republic, Kirov Oblast, and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug.
Most of the lakes in Perm Region are small and marshy. The largest lakes (Chusovskoe, Bolshoi Kumikush, and Novozhilovo) are located in the north. Lake Rogalek is considered to be the deepest lake. Chusovskoe Lake is a state reserve specially set aside to protect several migratory bird species. Another reserve on Lake Adovoa protects the nesting sites of the rare whooping swan. There are more than 800 bogs in Perm Region with commercially important peat reserves.
Climate: The Kama area is known for its long frosty, snowy Ural winters. However, the region`s severe continental climate causes abrupt seasonal changes, from a cold winter followed by a mild, usually warm spring and then by a hot summer.
Transportation: Perm is a junction for railway lines to Moscow, Ekaterinburg, Kushva, and Solikamsk. The four river ports located in Perm Region (Perm, Levshino, Berezniki, and Tchaikovsky) connect to ports on the Baltic, White, Black, and Caspian seas and the Sea of Azov.
Perm is the largest city in the Kama area. It was founded in 1723 near the village of Egoshikha dating from the early 17th century. Perm is both a cultural and scientific center. Perm is one of the largest cities in Russia, thirteenth most populous. The word "Perm" is `Komi in origin. "Parma" is translated from Komi-Permyak language as a hilly place, covered with woods.
Fascinating and beautiful examples of local customs and arts are preserved in Perm museums. Two of our museums, the State Art Gallery and Regional Natural History Museum which are housed together in a former cathedral, are well known throughout Russia. Visiting them, one can enjoy masterpieces of Russian iconography of the Stroganov school, Russian and foreign fine arts of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and the justly famous collection of native wooden sculptures of gods.
Visitors also enjoy the nearby ethnographical museum of wooden architecture, located near Khokhlovka village (42 km north of Perm). Khokhlovka successfully combines the beauty of nature and human striving. Situated in a large park beside the Kama River, it contains a watchtower, mill, church, threshing barn, salt refinery, peasant houses, and other village buildings dating back to the early nineteenth century.
If you do come to the Urals, try to stop by the city of Kungur (80 km to the south of Perm). You will be rewarded by seeing the unique Kungur Ice Cave, whose formations are over 10,000 years old. Beautiful whiteness, colorfully illuminated stalagmites and stalactites, clear purity of underground lakes, and magic sights of its many grottos will stay in your mind as pleasant memories from the Urals.
In the Perm district there are about one and a half thousand archeological monuments - there are sites of settlements and burial grounds of different epochs. In this area there are also unique monuments - “Kostischa” - sacrificial places, where ancient people carried out religious practices by sacrificing animals. Discoveries of hidden treasures – work instruments, weapons, and ornaments are common. Among these finds were handicrafts from silver, including the Central Asian, Byzantium and Iranian vessels of the 3 – 10th centuries. The collections of eastern silver from the Perm region are kept in museums in Moscow and Saint Petersburg - the best in the world.
The Turbinskii Burial Ground (Turbinskii archeological remains from the Bronze Age) is situated not far from Perm on a gentle slope of Mt. Shustovaya, on the right bank of the Kama reservoir, close to the river Chusovaya. In the valley of the river Chusovaya there are many sites from the Bronze Age.
Glyadenovskoe “kostische” - the sacrificial place for the ancient people of the Perm area (Glyadenovskaya archeological period from the 2nd century AD – I3th century AD) is situated on the right bank of the river Nizhnyaya Mulyanka, near the village Savino.
There are many health resorts here, among them the most noted being the balneological health resort “Ust-Kachka” (58 km far from Perm).
The area has unique natural resources including the state nature reserves “Visherskii”, “Basegi” and “Pred-Uralie”.
Apart from the natural sites many historical and architectural monuments are preserved. Some of them include - Petropavlovsk cathedral (1757-64), cathedral of Sudarium-Transfiguration monastery (1798-1832), buildings of the former public offices (the end of the 18th century), City Duma (the end of the 18th century) and the Noble Assembly (1830). There also is an old opera house and music school among buildings from the end of the 19th century and the begininnig of the 20th century. In Perm there is the only museum of wooden architecture in the Urals - Khokhlovka on the bank of the Kama reservoir.
The Belogorskii Saint-Nikolai monastery is the fifth temple in Russia by size - located on picturesque slopes of the Urals it is 100 kilometres from Perm and 85 kilometres from Kungur. From the 18th century affluent people from factories and Old Believers pursued by the authorities were concealed in cells and small monasteries here.
In the Perm district there are the towns (Solikamsk, Nyrob, Cherdyn, Kungur), where there are many historical monuments.
In Solikamsk you can see unique examples of stone architecture – Saint Trinity Cathedral, House of Voevode, Epiphny Church, Temple of the Transfiguration and the Cathedral Bell Tower and the underground museum – the Ust-Borovskij Salt-works (1882-1997), which is the only one in the Kama region. The salt-work`s buildings, made according to old traditions, are perfect examples of industrial architecture.
One of the interesting places of the Perm district is the memorial complex Perm 36, which is 100 km east of Perm. This was one of the infamous labour camps of the Gulag Archipelago where many dissidents were persecuted. The camp now has a memorial to the victims of the Gulag system and a museum and research centre.
Other attractions for tourists in the Perm region include rafting with the most popular rivers being the Kolva, Vishera, Berezovaya, Sylva and Chusovaya.
The region is also very popular among speleologists as there are about 600 caves here. Among them is the famous - Kungurskaya ice cave and other lesser known caves which are accessible only to speleologists. One of the most complex and interesting caves is Ordynskaya cave, situated near the town Kungur it contains many underwater galleries, grottoes and lakes.
Perm has long been famous for its musical and theatrical traditions. Today, Perm has the Tchaikovsky Opera and Ballet Theater, a puppet theater, and a young people`s theater, the Theatre "Near Bridge" and so on. The Perm Ballet School, philharmonic, circus, art gallery, and local history museum are world famous.
The articles made by craftsmen of the Kama area are beautiful and distinctive. More than 50 traditional folk arts have been preserved to our time, for example, birchbark plaiting, woodcarving, weaving, stone cutting, pottery, and lacemaking. Perm Region has become best known for stone cutting. The largest centers of this craft are Ordinsky District and the city of Kungur. The All-Russian symposium on granite park sculpture is held in Perm. Participants work right in front of the spectators, who have come to see this impressive performance in the city`s Gorky Children`s Park. The International Snow- and Ice-Sculpture Festival has already been held more than once in this same park.
Perm has three large botanical sites: the Zakamsky pine grove, Linden Mountain (Lipovaya Gora), and the municipal Chernyaevsky Forest Park.
The All-Union Rock-Line Festival is held annually near the Kungurskaya ice cave.
The Perm Art Gallery has a world-famous collection of wooden sculptures. Another attraction is the Khokhlovka architectural and ethnographic museum reserve, which has combined unique wooden buildings of the 17th to 19th centuries into a grand ensemble. There are 18 museums in Perm Region; and Perm itself has a circus, a philharmonic, and the only planetarium in the Urals.
Encarta World Atlas
http://www.perm.ru/ - Perm regional server